pwd This command is short for ‘print working directory’, which is exactly what it does. hostname The machine that is currently being worked on is known as the local host. The command ‘netconf’ can be used to change the name of the local host and ‘hostname’ is used to print the local host’s name. whoami As the name suggests, this command prints the user’s login name. id username Unlike the above command, this one prints the user id of the user along with his group id, effective id and all the supplementary groups that are involved.